彭定鼎: 保护自由的光辉文献:美国权利法案

来源:百度文库 编辑:16楼社区 时间:2019/12/08 05:39:40
彭定鼎
保护自由的光辉文献:美国权利法案 美国为什么先进、发达?因为它最好地(虽然远非完善地)捍卫了个人自由。捍卫自由的思想在美国深入人心,因为五月花号的那批最初的移民和其后的早期移民都是在欧洲受到政府迫害逃往美国的。

这些受迫害的人们下定决心要使美国成为自由之地。他们从到达美利坚的那一刻就下定决心杜绝人世间最严重的罪恶——公权力对个人的迫害。美利坚人民在英国法律的保护下过着自由幸福的生活,直到他们的权利受到侵害——被迫为他们没有表决权的事情纳税。这样的事情世界上许多国家的人民都无奈地甚至麻木地接受,但是美利坚殖民地人民选择了奋起反抗,向宗主国英国(也是许多美利坚人的祖国)宣战。最终分裂了大英帝国,获得了独立。美利坚的独立并非因为独立本身值得追求,而仅仅是因为宗主国侵犯了他们的权利,于是他们决定自己保护自己的权利。

美利坚合众国成立的最初13年间没有政府!!!立宪过程一波三折。立宪后,人们还是认为保护个人自由的措施不够严密,于是又补充了10条宪法修正案,后人称“权利法案”。

这里,我转载这个光辉的文献。



美国权利法案

按:1787年在费城起草的宪法,在各州审议批准的过程中,也有不少美国公民感到不安,因为宪法中并没有明确保障个人的权利。因此,《宪法》补充了10条修正案,统一称为《权利法案》,英文叫The Bill of Rights。由于补充了《权利法案》,《宪法》在13个州均获批准,并于1789年生效。

  第一条 Amendment I
  Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
  译文:国会不得制定关于下列事项的法律:确立国教或禁止信教自由;剥夺言论自由或出版自由;或剥夺人民和平集会和向政府请愿伸冤的权利。
  第二条 Amendment II
  A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
  译文:纪律严明的民兵是保障自由州的安全所必需的,人民持有和携带武器的权利不可侵犯。
  第三条 Amendment III
  No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
  译文:未经房主同意,士兵平时不得驻扎在任何住宅;除依法律规定的方式,战时也不得驻扎。
  第四条 Amendment IV
  The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
  译文:人民的人身、住宅、文件和财产不受无理搜查和扣押的权利,不得侵犯。除依据可能成立的理由,以宣誓或代誓宣言保证,并详细说明搜查地点和扣押的人或物,不得发出搜查和扣押状。
  第五条 Amendment V
  No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
  译文:除非根据大陪审团的报告或起诉书,任何人不受死罪或其他重罪的审判,但发生在陆、海军中或发生在战时或出现公共危险时服役的民兵中的案件除外;任何人不得因同一犯罪行为而两次遭受生命或身体的危害;不得在任何刑事案件中被迫自证其罪;不经正当法律程序,不得被剥夺生命、自由或财产。不给予公平赔偿,私有财产不得充作公用。
  第六条 Amendment VI
  In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.
译文:在一切刑事诉讼中,被告有权由犯罪行为发生地的州和地区的公正陪审团予以迅速和公开的审判,该地区应事先已由法律确定;得知控告的性质和理由;同原告证人对质;以强制程序取得对其有利的证人;并取得律师帮助为其辩护。
第七条 Amendment VII
  In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
  译文:在习惯法的诉讼中,其争执价额超过二十美元,由陪审团审判的权利应受到保护。由陪审团裁决的事实,合众国的任何法院除非按照习惯法规则,不得重新审查。
  第八条 Amendment VIII
  Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  译文:不得要求过多的保释金,不得处以过重的罚金,不得施加残酷和非常的惩罚。
  第九条 Amendment IX
  The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
  译文: 本宪法对某些权利的列举,不得被解释为否定或轻视由人民保留的其他权利。
  第十条 Amendment X
  The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
  译文:宪法未授予合众国、也未禁止各州行使的权力,由各州各自保留,或由人民保留。